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NIM (Student Number)E1A016255
Nama MahasiswaWINNY ASTARI AGUSTINA
Judul ArtikelPENGATURAN ORANG-ORANG YANG DILINDUGI DALAM KONFLIK BERSENJATA MENURUT HUKUM HUMANITER INTERNASIONAL (Studi tentang Kasus Tewasnya Wartawan Australia/Balibo Five dalam Konflik Timor Timur)
AbstrakPada tahun 1974, di Portugal terjadi Revolusi Bunga yang mendorong Portugal mengeluarkan kebijakan dekolonisasi dan mulai meninggalkan wilayah jajahannya termasuk Timor Timur. Partai-partai politik mulai berdiri di Timor Timur yaitu APODETI, FRETILIN, UDT, TRABALHISTA dan KOTA. Pada tahun 1975 pemerintah Indonesia melakukan invasi ke Timor Timur dengan mengirimkan Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia. Penyerangan Indonesia ke Timor Timur tersebut menyebabkan habisnya pemerintahan Fretlin, sebagai satu-satunya partai yang pro kemerdekaan dari Timor Timur merupakan sebuah harapan dan optimisme bagi masyrakat Timor Timur. Akibat dari invasi tersebut tidak hanya warga sipil yang menjadi korban tetapi ada lima wartawan dari Australia yang menjadi korban pada saat meliput konflik bersenjata di Timor Timur yang dikenal dengan Kasus Balibo Five. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaturan dalam hukum internasional mengenai pengaturan tentang orang-orang yang dilindungi dalam konflik bersenjata serta mengetahui kasus Balibo Five yang ditinjau melalui hukum humaniter internasional. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis normatif yang menggunakan pendekatan perundang-undangan dan pendekatan kasus. Semua data dalam penelitian ini berasal dari data sekunder yang disusun secara naratif dan dianalisis melalui metode kualitatif. Metode pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan studi kepustakaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pengaturan mengenai orang-orang yang dilindungi dalam hukum humaniter internasional termuat dalam Konvensi Jenewa 1949 dan Protokol Tambahan 1977, salah satu prinsip dasar yang dianut dalam hukum perang adalah prinsip pembedaan yaitu membedakan antara kombatan dengan penduduk sipil. Penduduk sipil seharusnya mendapat perlindungan berdasarkan Pasal 51 (1) Protokol Tambahan I 1977 yang menegaskan bahwa seorang civilian tidak boleh dijadikan sasaran serangan. Kelima wartawan yang menjadi korban dalam kasus Balibo Five bukan termasuk dalam war correspondent karena mereka bukan wartawan yang menyertai konflik tersebut. Perlindungannya diatur dalam Pasal 79 Protokol Tambahan I 1977. Selain itu, mereka seharusnya mendapat perlindungan berdasarkan Pasal 51 (2) Protokol Tambahan I yang menegaskan bahwa seorang civilian tidak boleh dijadikan sasaran serangan.
Abstrak (Inggris)The Indonesian invasion in 1975 was motivated by a revolt in Timor Leste which succeeded in overthrowing Portuguese rule at that time. Indonesia initially strongly supported East Timor's independenceIn 1974, the Flower Revolution occurred in Portugal which prompted Portugal to issue a decolonization policy and began to leave its colonies, including East Timor. Political parties began to exist in East Timor, namely APODETI, FRETILIN, UDT, TRABALHISTA and KOTA. In 1975 the Indonesian government invaded East Timor by sending the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia. The Indonesian attack on East Timor resulted in the end of the Fretilin government, as the only pro-independence party from East Timor was a hope and optimism for the people of East Timor. As a result of the invasion, not only civilians were victims but there were five journalists from Australia who became victims while covering the armed conflict in East Timor knownas the Balibo Five Case. This study aims to determine the arrangements in international law regarding the arrangements regarding people who are protected in armed conflict and to know the Balibo Five case which is reviewed through international humanitarian law. This research is a juridical research that uses a statutory approach and a case approach. All data in this study came from secondary data arranged in a narrative and analyzed through qualitative methods. The methods that used in this research is library research. The results of the research show that the regulations regarding protected persons in international humanitarian law are contained in the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocols. One of the basic principles adhered to in the law of war is the principle of differentiation, namely differentiating between combatant and civilian. The civilian population should receive protection under Article 51 (1) Additional Protocol I 1977 which states that a civilian must not be the target of attack. The five journalists who were victims in the Balibo Five case were not included in the war correspondent because they were not journalists who accompanied the conflict. Their protection is regulated in Article 79 Additional Protocol I 1977. In addition, they should receive protection under Article 51 (2) Additional Protocol I which states that a civilian cannot be the target of attack. , and hoped that the Portuguese also agreed to a plan from Jakarta to acquire East Timor, but in mid-1975 the Portuguese determined and supported from East Timor to determine their own rice, namely independence, Indonesian invasion or aggression by sending the Indonesian Armed Forces consisting of the Army, Navy and Air Force. The Indonesian attack on East Timor led to the end of the Fretilin government, but civilians, journalists who were reporting at that time were also killed by the Indonesian Armed Forces who attacked indiscriminately at that time. One of the non-combatant victims at the time was 5 (five) Journalists from Australia who were covering Indonesia's invasion of East Timor who died as a result of a large ABRI attack by direct shooting or stabbing at close range, 5 (five) journalists this was killed in the city limits of Balibo
Kata KunciBalibo Five, hukum humaniter internasional, konflik bersenjata, wartawan
Nama Pembimbing 1Dr. Aryuni Yuliantiningsih, S.H., M.H.
Nama Pembimbing 2Lynda Asiana, S.H., M.H.
Tahun2020
Jumlah Halaman17
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